1. That faith whereby we are justified is most frequently in the New Testament expressed by receiving. This notion of faith has been before spoken unto, in our general inquiry into the use of it in our justification. It shall not, therefore, be here much again insisted on. Two things we may observe concerning it:-First, That it is so expressed with respect unto the whole object of faith, or unto all that does any way concur unto our justification; for we are said to receive Christ himself: "As many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God," John 1:12; "As ye have received Christ Jesus the Lord," Col. 2:6. In opposition hereunto unbelief is expressed by not receiving of him, John 1:11; 3:11; 12:48; 14:17. And it is a receiving of Christ as he is "The LORD our Righteousness," as of God he is made righteousness unto us. And as no grace, no duty, can have any cooperation with faith herein,-this reception of Christ not belonging unto their nature, nor comprised in their exercise,-so it excludes any other righteousness from our justification but that of Christ alone; for we are "justified by faith." Faith alone receives Christ; and what it receives is the cause of our justification, whereon we become the sons of God. So we "receive the atonement" made by the blood of Christ, Rom. 5:11; for "God has set him forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood." And this receiving of the atonement includes the soul's approbation of the way of salvation by the blood of Christ, and the appropriation of the atonement made thereby unto our own souls. For thereby also we receive the forgiveness of sins: "That they may receive forgiveness of sins …by faith that is in me," Acts 26:18. In receiving Christ we receive the atonement; and in the atonement we receive the forgiveness of sins. But, moreover, the grace of God, and righteousness itself, as the efficient and material cause of our justification, are received also; even the "abundance of grace and the gift of righteousness," Rom. 5:17. So that faith, with respect unto all the causes of justification, is expressed by "receiving;" for it also receives the promise, the instrumental cause on the part of God thereof, Acts 2:41; Heb. 9:15. Secondly, That the nature of faith, and its acting with respect unto all the causes of justification, consisting in receiving, that which is the object of it must be offered, tendered, and given unto us, as that which is not our own, but is made our own by that giving and receiving. This is evident in the general nature of receiving. And herein, as was observed, as no other grace or duty can concur with it, so the righteousness whereby we are justified can be none of our own antecedent unto this reception, nor at any time inherent in us. Hence we argue, that if the work of faith in our justification be the receiving of what is freely granted, given, communicated, and imputed unto us,-that is, of Christ, of the atonement, of the gift of righteousness, of the forgiveness of sins,-then have our other graces, our obedience, duties, works, no influence into our justification, nor are any causes or conditions thereof; for they are neither that which does receive nor that which is received, which alone concur thereunto.
2. Faith is expressed by looking: "Look unto me, and be ye saved," Isa. 45:22; "A man shall look to his Maker, and his eyes shall have respect unto the Holy One of Israel," chap.17:7; "They shall look upon me whom they have pierced," Zech. 12:10. See Ps.123:2. The nature hereof is expressed, John 3:14, 15, "As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up: that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life." For so was he to be lifted up on the cross in his death, John 8:28, chap. 12:32. The story is recorded Numb. 21:8,9. I suppose none doubt but that the stinging of the people by fiery serpents, and the death that ensued thereon, were types of the guilt of sin, and the sentence of the fiery law thereon; for these things happened unto them in types, 1 Cor. 10:11. When any was so stung or bitten, if he betook himself unto any other remedies, he died and perished. Only they that looked unto the brazen serpent that was lifted up were healed, and lived; for this was the ordinance of God, -this way of healing alone had he appointed. And their healing was a type of the pardon of sin, with everlasting life. So by their looking is the nature of faith expressed, as our Saviour plainly expounds it in this place: "So must the Son of man be lifted up, that whosoever believeth in him," -that is, as the Israelites looked unto the serpent in the wilderness,-["should not perish."] And although this expression of the great mystery of the gospel by Christ himself has been by some derided, or, as they call it, exposed, yet is it really as instructive of the nature of faith, justification, and salvation by Christ, as any passage in the Scripture. Now, if faith, whereby we are justified, and in that exercise of it wherein we are so, be a looking unto Christ, under a sense of the guilt of sin and our lost condition thereby, for all, for our only help and relief, for deliverance, righteousness, and life, then is it therein exclusive of all other graces and duties whatever; for by them we neither look, nor are they the things which we look after. But so is the nature and exercise of faith expressed by the Holy Ghost; and they who do believe understand his mind. For whatever may be pretended of metaphor in the expression, faith is that act of the soul whereby they who are hopeless, helpless, and lost in themselves, do, in a way of expectancy and trust, seek for all help and relief in Christ alone, or there is not truth in it. And this also sufficiently evinces the nature of our justification by Christ.